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Bioprinting Using Algae: Effects of Extrusion Pressure and Needle Diameter on Cell Quantity in Printed Samples

Bioprinting is the fabrication of structures based on layer-by-layer deposition of biomaterials. Applications of bioprinting using plant or algae cells include the production of metabolites for use in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. While reported studies regarding effects of extrusion pressure and needle diameter on cell viability in bioprinting have used animal cells, there previously were no reports regarding effects

Alginate-Based Bioinks for 3D Bioprinting and Fabrication of Anatomically Accurate Bone Grafts

To realize the promise of 3D bioprinting, it is imperative to develop bioinks that possess the necessary biological and rheological characteristics for printing cell-laden tissue grafts. Alginate is widely used as a bioink because its rheological properties can be modified through pre-crosslinking or the addition of thickening agents to increase printing resolution. However, modification of alginate’s physiochemical characteristics using common

Symbiotic Photosynthetic Oxygenation within 3D-Bioprinted Vascularized Tissues

In this study, we present the photosynthetic oxygen (O 2) supply to mammalian cells within a volumetric extracellular matrix-like construct, whereby a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted fugitive pattern encapsulating unicellular green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, served as a natural photosynthetic O 2 generator. The presence of bioprinted C. reinhardtii enhanced the viability and functionality of mammalian cells while reducing the hypoxic conditions within

Preclinical evaluation of a 3D-printed hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffold for ridge augmentation

Background/Purpose Supracrestal ridge augmentation (SRA) is a major challenge for clinicians. This study investigated the efficacy of a 3D-printed (3DP) hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (HA/PLGA) scaffold as a potential biologic for SRA. Methods Scaffolds that were 5 mm in diameter and 2.5-mm thick with a 1.2-mm diameter through-and-through central hole composed of 90% HA and 10% PLGA were printed using an extrusion-based bioprinter.

3D bioprinting of mechanically tuned bioinks derived from cardiac decellularized extracellular matrix

3D bioprinting is a powerful technique for engineering tissues used to study cell behavior and tissue properties in vitro. With the right formulation and printing parameters, bioinks can provide native biological and mechanical cues while allowing for versatile 3D structures that recapitulate tissue-level organization. Bio-based materials that support cellular adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation – including gelatin, collagen, hyaluronic acid, and

Nearly Perfect 3D Structures Obtained by Assembly of Printed Partsof Polyamide Ionene Self-Healing Elastomer

Herein, we demonstrate 3D printing of an elastomeric imidazolium polyamide-ionene which exhibits intrinsic shape-memory (SM) and self-healing (SH) character, reporting optimized printing conditions and rheological properties. This study shows the suitability of this material for 3D-printing via fused deposition modeling. The 3D-printed objects retain elasticity and SM when external force is applied, and the elastomeric character is quantified via mechanical

Expanding sacrificially printed microfluidic channel-embedded paperdevices for construction of volumetric tissue models in vitro

We report a method for expanding microchannel-embedded paper devices using a precisely controlled gas-foaming technique for the generation of volumetric tissue models in vitro. We successfully fabricated hollow, perfusable microchannel patterns contained in a densely entangled network of bacterial cellulose nanofibrils using matrix-assisted sacrificial three-dimensional printing, and demonstrated the maintenance of their structural integrity after gas-foaming-enabled expansion in an aqueous

Feasible Regions of Bioink Composition, Extrusion Pressure, and Needle Size for Continuous Extrusion-Based Bioprinting

Bioprinting has many potential applications in drug screening, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. In extrusion-based bioprinting, the extruded strand is the fundamental building block for printed constructs and needs to be of good quality and continuous in structure. In recent years, many studies have been conducted on extrusion-based bioprinting. However, values of process parameters leading to continuous extrusion of strands

Bioprinted Injectable Hierarchically Porous Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel Constructs with Shape‐Memory Properties

Direct injection of cell‐laden hydrogels shows high potential for tissue regeneration in translational therapy. The traditional cell‐laden hydrogels are often used as bulk space fillers to tissue defects after injection, likely limiting their structural controllability. On the other hand, patterned cell‐laden hydrogel constructs often necessitate invasive surgical procedures. To overcome these problems, herein, a unique strategy is reported for encapsulating

3D Printed Hydrogel-Based Sensors for Quantifying UV Exposure

Exposure to excessive ultraviolet (UV) radiation can have detrimental effects on human health. Inexpensive easy-to-use sensors for monitoring UV radiation can allow broad-scale assessment of UV exposure, but their implementation requires technology that enables rapid and affordable manufacturing of these sensors on a large scale. Herein, we report a novel three-dimensional (3D) printing procedure and printable ink composition that produce

Reconfigurable Microphysiological Systems for Modeling Innervation and Multitissue Interactions

Tissue‐engineered models continue to experience challenges in delivering structural specificity, nutrient delivery, and heterogenous cellular components, especially for organ‐systems that require functional inputs/outputs and have high metabolic requirements, such as the heart. While soft lithography has provided a means to recapitulate complex architectures in the dish, it is plagued with a number of prohibitive shortcomings. Here, concepts from microfluidics, tissue

Synthesized biocompatible and conductive ink for 3D printing of flexible electronics

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an efficient technique for the fabrication of electronic devices. It also enables the use conductive of biomaterials in various applications, such as implants and flexible devices. Designing a new bioink is extremely challenging. For bioelectronics devices, bioink materials should be printable, flexible, conductive, harmless to cells, and sufficiently strong to maintain their shape when immersed in

3D Bioprinting the Cardiac Purkinje System Using Human Adipogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Purkinje Cells

Purpose: The objective of this study was to reprogram human adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) to form Purkinje cells and to use the reprogrammed Purkinje cells to bioprint Purkinje networks. Methods: hADMSCs were reprogrammed to form Purkinje cells using a multi-step process using transcription factors ETS2 and MESP1 to first form cardiac progenitor stem cells followed by SHOX2 and TBX3

Binder-free 3D printing of covalent organic framework (COF) monoliths for CO2 adsorption

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) present a large group of crystalline porous polymeric materials, which are formed with organic building blocks by strong covalent bonds. They have great potential in energy, environment, and biotechnology areas due to their high surface areas, tunable pore size distribution, and versatile functionality. However, they are largely synthesized in powder form only. The recent 3D printing

Alginate Hydrogels with Embedded ZnO Nanoparticles for Wound Healing Therapy

In this in-vitro study, we designed a 3D printed composite of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) with photocatalytic activities encapsulated within hydrogel (alginate) constructs, for antibacterial purposes applicable towards wound healing. We primarily sought to confirm the mechanical properties and cell compatibility of these ZnO NP infused scaffolds.

3D-Printed Surface-Patterned Ceramic Membrane with Enhanced Performance in Crossflow Filtration

Appropriate surface patterns on polymer membranes have been demonstrated to have a strong effect on improving the permeability and anti-fouling ability. Herein, for the first time we have developed a surface-patterned alumina ceramic membrane with gradient porous structure using a novel 3D-printing technology. The well-controllable surface-patterned alumina membrane was fabricated by use of 3D-printable ceramic ink through a layer-by-layer coating

Development of a 3D Printed Coating Shell to Control the Drug Release of Encapsulated Immediate-Release Tablets

The use of 3D printing techniques to control drug release has flourished in the past decade, although there is no generic solution that can be applied to the full range of drugs or solid dosage forms. The present study provides a new concept, using the 3D printing technique to print a coating system in the form of shells with various

Permeable hollow 3D tissue-like constructs engineered by on-chip hydrodynamic-driven assembly of multicellular hierarchical micromodules

Engineered three-dimensional (3D) microtissues that recapitulate in vivo tissue morphology and microvessel lumens have shown significant potential in drug screening and regenerative medicine. Although microfluidic-based techniques have been developed for bottom-up assembly of 3D tissue models, the spatial organization of heterogeneous micromodules into tissue-specific 3D constructs with embedded microvessels remains challenging. Inspired by a hydrodynamic-based classic game which stacks rings

3D Printing of Cell-Laden Electroconductive Bioinks for Tissue Engineering Applications

Bioprinting is an emerging powerful fabrication method, which enables the rapid assembly of 3D bioconstructs with dispensing cell-laden bioinks in pre-designed locations. However, to translate this technology into real applications, there are still a number of challenges that need to be addressed. First, the current inks are generally composed of polymeric materials with poor electrical conductivity that mismatches with the

3D bioprinting of cell-laden electroconductive MXene nanocomposite bioinks

MXenes, a new family of burgeoning two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides/nitrides, have been extensively explored in recent years owing to their outstanding properties such as a large specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, low toxicity, and biodegradability. Numerous efforts have been devoted to exploring MXenes for various biomedical applications such as cancer therapy, bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. However, the